There is a huge difference here. I will put my hand up and confess right off the bat that I used to be overly busy and under productive.
Everyone seems to be busy and wanting that 25th hour in the day. But how many times have you checked your emails today? Maybe flicked aimlessly through Instagram? More times than you can remember I imagine. From time to time I have to slap myself for doing the same thing too!
Being productive is a combination of two things:
PRIORITISATION + ORGANISATION
The simplest way I apply this is to make daily and weekly to do lists. Don't just write the list though, have a system that separates the high priority and lower priority tasks (I simply put a '*' next to stuff that is top priority for me).
Also, consider where you can multi task. I love listening to audio books and the time I take to do this is often whilst getting my cardio done. Or maybe you're always rushing to sort breakfast? I always get mine going on my George Foreman grill whilst I shower. By the time i'm clean and dry BAM, breakfast is served. Hitting two birds with one stone can make all the difference.
Simple stuff, but it's often the simple stuff that gets neglected.